Saturday, June 23, 2012

Indonesia: Political Profile

A Political Profile

Country's Name: Republic of Indonesia
Capital City: Jakarta
Type of Government: republic
Independence Date: August 17, 1945 (from the Netherlands)

Chief of State (public face): President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Head of State (actual leader): President Susilo Bambung Yudhoyono

Description of Executive Powers:
President (who serves as both Chief of State and Head of State) and Vice President are elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; the last election was held on July 8, 2009 with the next to be held in 2014.  Additionally, the President appoints a Cabinet.

Description of Legislative Powers:
The People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has a role in inaugurating and impeaching the President and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy.  The House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) has 560 seats and its members are elected to serve five-year terms.  The DPR formulates and passes legislation at the national level.  The House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD) has the constitutionally mandated role of providing legislative input to the DPR on issues affecting the country's various regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district).  The last elections were held on April 9, 2009 with the next to be held in 2014.

Description of Judicial Powers:
The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review.  Justices are appointed by the President from a list of candidates selected by the legislature.  In March of 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.  The Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) has the power of judicial review, has jurisdiction over the results of the general elections, and reviews actions to dismiss a President from office.

Suffrage (voting rights): 17 years of age; universal
all married persons regardless of age

Their Ambassador to U.S.: Dino Patti Djalal
Location of Embassy in U.S.: Washington, DC
Location of Consulates in U.S.: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

U.S. Ambassador to Them: Scot A. Marciel
Location of U.S. Embassy There: Jakarta
Location of U.S. Consulates There: Surabaya, with presence in Medan and Bali

Representative to the UN: Desra Percaya

two equal horizontal band of red (top) and white (bottom); the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage and white represents purity

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